Green Coffee Defects

Quality is one of the key factors that has allowed Colombian Coffee to keep its position in the markets and the fidelity of clients abroad. The product delivered generates the trust and security in the client as the coffee fills the expectations in terms of physical and sensorial features required.

Colombia has been distinguished for delivering to the market a product that can be a synonym of good quality.  The maintenance and preservation of this quality over time is a factor that makes a difference in competitiveness in relation to other coffee producing countries.

Sensorial attributes that final consumers can perceive in a cup of Colombian Coffee are determined by the for bean's inherent features related to species, variety, climate and altitude of production, and also by the daily effort of more than 500.000 coffee growing families that work hard in harvesting,  wet processing and selecting the best beans. This allows Colombian Coffee to be highly positioned in the international market which, at the end, allows to increase the demand for the product and the willingness to pay a higher price on the part of the consumer.

The quality description for exported green coffee can be found in the National Coffee Committee's 05 resolution of 2002 that can be downloaded here (spanish only)

The defects that are not allowed for export can also be illustrated in the following pictures. It is made  to help to identify and to describe different types of green coffee defects, its effects in roasted coffee and their incidence in the cup. 

 

1. Full Black or Partly Black Bean

Description

  • Brown to black beans

  • Shrunken

  • Wrinkled

  • Flat faced

  • Crack too opened

 

Causes

  • Lack of water during development of cherries

  • Over fermentation

  • Overripe cherries picked from the ground

Bas drying process or humidity on the beans

 

 

 

 


2. Moldy Bean

 

Description

Coffee beans infested by mold presenting yellowish or reddish spores

 

Causes

  • Over fermentation

  • Long interruptions during drying process

  • Storage of beans with high moisture content

 

 

3. Sour or Partial Sour Bean

 

Description

  • Light brown to dark brown beans

  • Crack free of tegument

  • Silver skin can be reddish-brown

 

Causes

  • Delay in between coffee picking and depulping

  • Overextended fermentation process

  • Use of dirty water

  • Storage of beans with high moisture content

 

 

4. Crystallized Bean

Description

Coffee beans grayish and bluish in color, fragile, brittle

 

Causes

Beans dried mechanically at temperatures above 50° Celsius, faulty in drying process

 

 

5. Faded - Streaked Bean

Description

Stained bean, showing an irregular greenish color

 

Causes

Usually due to uneven drying or re-wetting after drying

 

 

6. Faded - Oldish Bean

Description

Coffee beans with alterations in the normal color, white coffee beans, cream, yellow to brown

 

Causes

  • Long time in storage

  • Storage in bad conditions (high temperature and humidity)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. Faded - Amber or Buttery Bean

 

Description

Yellow, semi-transparent beans

 

Causes

Iron deficiency in the soil

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8. Faded - Over dried

 

Description

Amber to yellow beans

 

Causes

Excessive time in the dryer, or high temperature during drying

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9. Cut or Nipped bean

Description

Cut or nipped bean and rusty

 

Causes

  • Bean broken by the depulping machine during wet process

  • Cherries harvested prior to maturity

 

 

10. Insect damage

 

 

Description

Beans with small holes caused by insects.

 

Causes

  • Attack on cherries by Hypothenemus haempei  (coffee berry borer)

  • Attack by Araecerus Fasciculatus during storage, due to inadequate storage conditions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11. Shrunk Bean

 

 

Description

Wrinkled bean

 

Causes

  • Beans affected by drought conditions

  • Lack of fertilization

 

 

12. Immature bean

Description

  • Green or light grey beans

  • Beans tend to have a very adherent silver skin and  size smaller than normal

  • Whither surface

  • Smaller size than normal

  • In this group low density beans are included

 

Causes

  • Cherries picked before ripeness.

  • Cultivation in marginal zones for coffee production.

  • Lack of fertilizer

  • Beans affected by drought and rust disease

 

 

13. Pressed or Crushed Bean

Description

Bruised beans with partial fractures

 

Causes

  • Bruised beans during depulping, drying and milling process

  • Milling parchment with high moisture

 

 

14. Wet or Underdried Bean

 

Description

Beans with dark green color and soft texture

 

Causes

Bean with high humidity. Lack or incomplete drying

Share

© Federación Nacional de Cafeteros de Colombia 2010 Terms of Service Newsroom En Español Online Services Mobile Version